4.1 Isku dhufasho
Markii aan ka shaqeyneynnay isku dhufashada tirooyinka caadiga ah, jajabyada iyo jajab tobanlayaasha, waxaan haddaba bilowgii isticmaalnnay waxa loogu magacaabo "iskugeynta soo noqnoqota", sidan ayeyna u ekeyd:



Tiro togan
Tiro togan

3
2 =
2 + 2 + 2 =
(+2) + (+2) + (+2) =
(+2) och (+2) och (+2)

Marka aan ku muujinno xariiqda tirada sidan ayey u ekaaneysaa:


Jawaabtu waxay noqoneysaa 6.



Tiro togan Tiro taban

Isla sidaas ayaan uga shaqeyneynaa marka ay timaado isku dhufashada tirooyinka taban.

3
(-2) =
(-2) + (-2) + (-2) =
(-2) och (-2) och (-2)

Sidan ayey u ekaaneysaa marka aan ku muujinno xariiqda tirada:


Jawaabtu waxay noqoneysaa -6.

Hab kale oo lagu fahmo isku dhufashada tirooyinka taban waa in aan eegnno sida ay isku beddeleyso taranka isku dhufashada marka la beddelo mid ka mid ah isirada. Eeg tusaalahan:

3 5 = 15
2
5 = 10
1
5 = 5
0
5 = 0
(-1)
5 = -5
(-2)
5 = -10
(-3)
5 = -15
i.w.m.


Tiro taban Tiro taban

Xitaa habkan waxaa lagu muujin karaa siyaabo kala duwan si loo fahmo. Waxaan ku bilaabeynnaa in aan sii wadnno taxanaha tirada ee tusaalihii hore, laakiin hadda waxaan yareyneynaa isirka labaad ee tusaalaha hore.

Waxaan hadda u qaadanneynaa in aad taqaan sida leysugu dhufto tiro togan iyo tiro taban:

(-3) 5 = -15
(-3)
4 = -12
(-3)
3 = -9
(-3)
2 = -6
(-3)
1 = -3
(-3)
0 = 0
(-3)
(-1) =
(-3)
(-2) =
(-3)
(-3) =
i.w.m.


Si kale oo loo sharaxo habka leysugu dhufto labo tiro oo taban waa in la isticmaalo tirooyinka iska soo horjeeda. Waxaan soo qaadanneynaa hal tusaale:

Haddii aan soo qaadanno laba tiro oo iska soo horjeeda, 7 iyo -7, oo lagu dhufto tiro isku mid ah, waxaa soo baxeysa ama ay jawaabtu noqoneysaa laba tiro oo iska soo horjeeda.

2 7 = 14 och 2 (-7) = -14

Tirooyinka cusub ee iska soo horjeeda waxay noqonayaan 14 iyo -14. Waxaan soo qaadaneynaa tusaale kale oo leh tirooyinka 4 iyo -4 laakiin waxaan hadda ku dhufaneynaa tiro taban.

(-2) 4 = -8 och (-2) (-4) = ?

Waxaan ognahay in taranka ka soo baxaaya iskudhufashada ay noqonayso laba tiro oo cusub oo iska soo horjeeda, haddii aan ku dhufanno tiro isku mid ah.


(-2)
4 = -8 iyo (-2) (-4) = 8

Isku dhufashada tirooyinka taban ma lagu muujin karo xariiqda tirada, laakiin tusaalooyinkan kadib waxaa sameyneynaa gunaanad. Ma ka jawaabi kartaa su'aalahan soo socda?