Åk 6–9
 
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1.2 History
Drawings and maps often indicate size by using a scale.  The scale is based on more or less exact measurements but in earlier days, we tried to estimate distances using different methods.

In order to draw a map of an area, we could for example walk it, estimate the distance and calculate how long it to travel a certain distance.  Earlier maps were therefore very approximate.  The first know map is about 5,000 years old.  It is on a clay tablet and is from Babylonia.

In Egypt, they calculated an area’s size by dividing the land into triangles which were then measured and drawn in a smaller size.  The oldest existing map from this era is circa 3,200 years old and written on papyrus.

In Sweden there lived Olaus Magnus during the 1500’s.  He completed the first map of most of Scandinavia, The Carta Marina.  The map contained many large mistakes, but could still give people an idea of how the countries looked.

During the 1600’s, architecture began being considered its own profession.  Architects spent most of their time making drawing of castles and manors.

During the 1700’s and 1800’s, there became the need for the military to equip themselves with maps.  They developed methods for making maps which at that time were made by hand.  By using triangulation, maps became relatively reliable.

When we started using sky photography during the 1900’s, maps became much more exact.

Nowadays, we use satellite pictures as the bases to create maps.  With the help of GPS, map making has become much more exact.